A. One of the earliest, and still the most extensively used, is aluminum sulfate, also known as alum. Nowadays coagulant aids are also being used in conjunction with alum to reduce alum dose required. So the opposite charges coagulant is added to the water to overcome the repulsive charge and “destabilize” the suspension. Inorganic coagulants are both cost-effective and applicable for a broad variety of water and wastewater. Alum acts as a coagulant, precipitant and flocculant (settling agent) to aid in the removal of contaminants such as turbidity, BOD, TOC and color to name a few. The volume of sludge produced per MGD if it is collected at 2% solids. Usually a metallic salt like alum is added as a coagulant to create positively charged ions. Does not affect pH value of water. Inorganic coagulants are particularly effective on raw water with low turbidity and will often treat this type of water when organic coagulants cannot. B. D. Decreases pH value of water. The formative flocs deposit in water faster than small particles (Ahmad et al, 2016). The use of aluminum as coagulants often results in higher levels of aluminum in the water, but usually at safe amounts. And if aluminum sulphate is used, aluminum and sulphate are added. The entire process occurs in a very short time (usually several seconds), and the first results are the formation of very small particles. Aluminum sulfate (alum) is the most common coagulant used for water purification. Chemical coagulants are added to the raw water and for a brief period rapid mixing is carried to produce what is called a microfloc. After coagulation, aluminum sulfate acts a flocculating agent and enables these particles to stick together and form bigger particles, allowing easier purification of the water through sedimentation and filtration. The coagulation process utilizes what is known as a chemical coagulant (aluminum or iron salts) to neutralize the surface charge and therefore promote particle agglomeration. Coagulation is usually accomplished in two The alum and ferrous sulfate are hydrolysis according to the following equation- The alum, when added as a coagulant in water. The water with the added coagulant then enters a flash mixer to rapidly disperse the coagulant throughout the water. Calculate the followings: 1. For example, a water treater who feeds 25 parts of alum (or a related product) might get away with feeding just 2-3 parts of ATS 835. Answer: Option D The amount of natural alkalinity required to react with the alum added in terms of CaCO 3 3. Both alum and sodium aluminate are extremely effective in wastewater applications requiring phosphorus removal. C. Increases pH value of water. Does not require alkalinity in water for flocculation. The majority of municipal water treatment plants use aluminum sulphate as the coagulation chemical. Chemicals (coagulants) are added to the water to bring the nonsettling particles together into larger, heavier masses of solids called floc. There are a variety of primary coagulants which can be used in a water treatment plant. Normally 5-10% solution of coagulant is used. And because ATS 835 is completely soluble, it will hardly increase solids due to the coagulant. Other chemicals, such as ferric sulfate or sodium aluminate, may also be used. Alum can be bought in liquid form with a concentration of 8.3%, or in dry form with a concentration of 17%. Once added to water, the inorganic coagulants form aluminum or iron precipitates. Alum is the most widely used coagulant. The amount of alum required to treat a flow of 1 MGD(million gallon /day) 2. Generally, water treatment facilities have the coagulation process set up so that the coagulant … Assist infiltration. A raw water supply is treated with an alum dosage of 25 mg/L. When a coagulant is added to water containing turbidity, flocs will be formed. Coagulant is a chemical added to the water to withdraw the …