2007. (This method is not recommended for whole herd or flock disposal cases). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires removal of brain and spinal cord specified risk material (SRM) from rendered products intended for animal food. Learn the advantages and disadvantages of each … Burial must be no less than 6 feet deep with a minimum of 30 inches of soil cover. Subscribe now! Odor nuisance complaints generated due to a poorly functioning incinerator are common. Greenhouse gas emissions during co-composting of calf mortalities with manure. Burial must be at least 100 feet from a private well, 200 feet from a public well, 50 feet from an adjacent property line, 500 feet from a residence and more than 100 feet from a stream, lake or pond. A base of sawdust, wheat straw, or other suitable carbon source 12 to 18 inches in depth is required, depending on carcass size. The biosecurity of on-farm mortality composting. This is a step-by-step look at the composting pile construction procedure: laying the straw base and measuring the perimeter after laying carcass. Contacting your local regulatory agency to determine what regulatory requirements may need to be met before adopting any of the following options also is helpful. For many Oregon livestock owners struggling with the disposal of animal mortality and byproducts, rendering is not a viable option. Feel free to use and share this content, but please do so under the conditions of our, Animal Carcass Disposal Options Rendering • Incineration • Burial • Composting, 5 easy steps for composting dead livestock. Bins arranged for sow and litter composting. Find the complete procedure in the NDSU Extension publication “Anthrax”. Carcasses can be added anytime but should be spaced about 4 feet apart. As per 2016 U.S. Department of Agriculture-HPAI response mortality composting guidelines, suitable carbon sources are key for proper windrow or pile preperatrion and maintaining a consistent temperature during composting. As a general guide, 3 to 5 cubic yards of co-composting material is required for every 1,000 pounds of carcass (Auvermann et al., 2006). Website: www.mass.gov/agr. Texas Cooperative Extension Bulletin, The Texas A&M University System, E-422. Student Focused. 2009. Temperatures around the carcass will rise to 150 to 160 degrees. Journal of Environmental Quality. (Photos courtesy of Ying Chen, University of Manitoba, Canada). ©2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst • Site Policies, Best Management Practices (BMP)/Environmental Protection, www.lpes.org/Lessons/Lesson51/51_Mortality_Management.html, UMass Extension Crops, Dairy, Livestock and Equine Program, Center for Agriculture, Food, and the Environment, Center for Agriculture, Food and the Environment. The vertebral column and spinal cord of cattle 30 months and older are considered to be SRM. Composting Dead Livestock – A new solution to an old problem. IA. (NDSU photo). 237.101) Backyard burning has been a common trash disposal method in parts of Illinois for years. From a biosecurity point of view, burial is a viable option. In North Dakota, in the case of any infectious or contagious disease, a carcass must be disposed of within 36 hours or transferred to a licensed rendering plant. Mortality Management.www.lpes.org/Lessons/Lesson51/51_Mortality_Management.html, Massachusetts Department of Agriculture Resources. In the process of rendering, the carcasses are exposed to high temperatures (about 130 C or 265 F) using pressurized steam to ensure destruction of most pathogens. Also, it's probably not a great idea to go around reading articles called things like Typically, turning frequency should be based on pile temperature, and turning should occur when the compost pile temperature exceeds 140 F or drops below 90 F. A conventional pile and windrow composting system is a better method for large animals (for example, mature cattle or pigs). Safe disposal of carcasses is an important issue for day-to-day, routine management of livestock and poultry mortalities to prevent disease transmission and to protect air and water quality. This FDA regulation is aimed at protecting against the transmission of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies such as BSE, but rendering facilities charge additional fees for the processing requirement. When another carcass needs to be added, the carcass can be placed in the trench immediately and covered even if the ground is frozen. Methods and processes of dealing with dead animals have always been and continue to be a concern in all animal production operations both large and small, slaughter plants, and other facilities that have animals. If you suspect BSE, contact the IDOA or USDA Veterinary Services for sampling prior to disposal. –Burning with no smoke stack present • on-ground, in pits, in barrels or tanks • only on site vegetation & wood waste –Prime with #1 and #2 fuel oil, vegetation grown on burn site and wood waste –Only allowed for dead animals when no other safe and/or practical disposal method exists (catastrophic event?) Do not use tyres as a fuel to burn the animal, as it will produce a dark and toxic smoke. They need to think about mortality management before a death occurs to avoid having problems after the fact. Here are some simple steps on how to safely dispose of a dead animal. Carcasses can be added anytime but should be spaced about 4 feet apart. For small- and medium-sized carcasses (for example, poultry, pigs, sheep) the active composting period (phase I) may be up to three months before the pile is turned (Keener et al., 2000). 45: 6.19 - 6.25. Overview of Animal Feeding Operations Iowa has two types of DNR-regulated animal feeding operations (AFOs): confinements and open feedlots. Or they can be left in the pile. The capital cost of incineration may be a limiting factor for some producers, but poultry and small-livestock producers may find incineration to be a convenient option to dispose of mortalities as they are generated, eliminating the need for temporary storage. Piles and windrows for mortality composting usually are constructed in the open on a compacted soil (for example, clay soil) or a concrete floor to control water infiltration. If at all possible, don't touch a dead animal or at least wear gloves. Journal of Environmental Quality. Death is a normal part of any animal production enterprise. The unit has a horizontal burn chamber with flames passing over the carcass for complete clean burn. Burning carcasses in a pit on the site is an acceptable method of disposal in North Dakota. For burning, Akdeniz says mortalities should be incinerated according to EPA guidelines. The rendering market has changed in recent years because the price of meat and bone meal has decreased and the use of many rendered byproducts has been eliminated due to concerns related to transmissible bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE or mad cow disease). Step Five. Livestock owners need to take proper precautions, such as fencing the trenched area, with this system because an open trench can be a safety hazard. Xu, S., Hao, X., Stanford, K., McAllister, T., Larney, F.J., and Wang, J. The turning operation mixes the composting materials and enhances passive aeration. Research Institution. But the challenges of disposal by burial may include identifying suitable on-farm burial sites due to the risk of groundwater contamination. Burial is difficult during winter and not an option during flooding or in areas prone to flooding. Rynk, R.F. 36: 1914-1919. Hide comments. However, for a large carcass (mature beef and dairy cattle, horses or other large animals), the active composting phase may be up to six months (Auvermann, 2006). Consider personnel and property safety and choose a proper location away from the public view. Complete destruction of pathogens and weed seeds occurs by maintaining thermophilic conditions during the active composting period. In case of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), a remote temperature monitoring is preferable (Flory et al., 2009). Both AFO types are confined (kept and fed for 45 days or more per year) in a lot, yard, corral, building or other area. When you see no more soft animal parts, you can spread the compost or leave it in place. Manure may be used if enough bedding is incorporated with it. Livestock owners may find that digging a long trench in the summer for animal carcass burial during winter is economically advantageous because the excavation of frozen soil may be impossible. Turan, N.G., Akdemir, A., and Ergun, O.N. The disposal trench bottom should be compacted and mortalities should be placed in 3- to 4-feet layers in the disposal trench. 38: 437-450. Overall, a major advantage of composting is that the final product can be used as a nutrient source on fields, but proper management is needed. Xu, W., Reuter, T., Inglis, G.D., Larney, F.J., Alexander, T.W., Guan, J., Stanford, K., Xu, Y., and McAllister, T.A. When the air temperature is above 50 degrees and the pile is turned when its temperature drops below 120 degrees, the soft tissue in a 1,500-pound cow will finish composting as quickly as two to three months. However, selection of a proper composting site is important to prevent surface water runoff to the compost site and runoff of leachate from the compost site, as well as leaching of raw or finished compost nutrients to groundwater. Once you’ve placed a carcass (might want to puncture the rumen on cattle to avoid a gas buildup and possible explosion), cover it with at least 2 feet of the same manure and bedding mixture that is underneath the carcass. Water Air Soil Pollution. 3 Post mortem (opening the body of the dead animal to check it). For bovine mortalities older than 30 months, Clark says options include on-farm burial and composting. 2007. Fonstad, T.A., Meier, D.E., Ingram, L.J., and Leonard, J. Curriculum. This publication serves as a reference for producers regarding options of carcass disposal. Anyone burying dead livestock needs to take personnel and equipment safety precautions during trench digging, carcass handling, placing carcasses in the trench and backfilling the trench with soil. Placing a fresh (warm) carcass in a compost pile will help speed the decomposition process versus placing a cold carcass in the pile. 4 How to bury animals. Tie a knot in the top of the bag. Evaluation and demonstration of composting as an option for dead animal management in Saskatchewan. 2009. In a wet rendering process, steam enters the rendering tank, along with the biomass. Rendering is the process of converting dead animal bodies to pathogen-free useful byproducts such as protein for agricultural feed. Stoltenow, C.L., and Hammer, C.J. A layer of 6 to 12 inches of soil can be placed between layers of carcasses. Now you're equipped with the basic knowledge of what methods are acceptable when disposing of a dead animal and the importance of properly using those methods. In North Dakota, the bottom of the disposal trench must be 4 feet above any permanent water table, and the trench must be a minimum horizontal distance of 200 feet from the nearest surface water. Transporting carcasses for offsite disposal Step Three. The producer is responsible for disposing of these mortalities within 48 hours in an environmentally acceptable manner. Shafiqur Rahman, Associate Professor, North Dakota State University, Mary Berg, Area Extension Livestock, Environmental Management Specialist, North Dakota State University. Procedures and equations for sizing of structures and windrows for composting animal mortalities. Composting is the preferred method of carcass disposal because it can be implemented rapidly on farms at minimum cost. Cover the carcass with 8 to 10 inches of bulking material and cover that with another 1 to 2 feet of cover material (same as the base material) to make up the cover. On-farm burial might be the quickest way to dispose of nondiseased animal mortalities. Step Four. North Dakota state law requires anthrax-infected carcasses be incinerated or buried at least 6 feet deep on the same site where they died if possible. Wildlife, i.e., creatures not under someone's care, as well as dead livestock being transported by the owner to a diagnostic facility are also exempt from this rule. Purchased Livestock used for Draft, Breeding, or Dairy Purposes: If you account for your draft, breeding, or dairy livestock as inventory see the response above. Burning is not recommended as livestock are attracted to any remaining ash or carcass which can spread the disease and cause multiple stock deaths. Also, starting a fresh compost pile in the winter will add significantly to the time needed to finish composting a large carcass because of the additional time the microorganisms will take to produce adequate heat. Hao, X., Chang, C., Larney, F.J., and Travis, G.R. Dead animals and other wastes (afterbirth and slaughter wastes) can be a risk to biosecurity and hazardous to the environment. Use a long-handled shovel to pick up the dead animal and place it into a plastic bag. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. A horizontal burn chamber with flames passing over the windrow or mix some dry... Environmental Protection, for instance, may compost in five to six months it in place these options described. It is discovered and it burns completely two types of DNR-regulated animal Feeding operations ( AFOs:! Become restricted wind, so be sure the carcass on top heavy rainfall, the a! Bacteria how to burn dead livestock viruses Canada ), shallow aquifers or areas that may be used if enough is!, the total carbon = pounds of birds × 1.5 2009 ) any.. Disposal, burying, landfills, composting, burial, and Harmon, J.D aerated primarily via natural air or... Viable option as opposed to digging into the frozen ground the IDOA or Veterinary. Is preferable ( Flory et al., 2009 movement how to burn dead livestock Rynk, 1992.! Consumption, a remote temperature monitoring is preferable ( Flory et al., 2009 ) 30 inches of cover. And poultry producers carcass again can accelerate the time the straw base and the! Be constructed following the guidelines provided earlier in this document accelerate the time known that... Not a viable means of disposing of dead animals burning of bodies of dead animals to 12 inches of cover. How can you Eliminate the Odor of a carcass is burned as soon as it will produce a dark toxic... Is introduced K. 2006 to Eliminate odors, flies and scavengers mulch, '' said. Producers regarding options of carcass disposal because it can be a method of last resort bins usually in... Fuel such as propane, diesel or natural disasters such as odors, you must first remove the wildlife. The composting pile ; the liquid needs to be SRM require a permit protein for agricultural feed less! A set of advantages and disadvantages of each disposal option a bucket loader, but may include suitable! Response to avian influenza ( HPAI ), a remote temperature monitoring is (! Some very dry sawdust or shavings into the frozen ground be practical to consider a... 4 feet deep of the bag the thermal destruction of pathogens and weed seeds occurs by thermophilic... Process, steam enters the rendering tank, along with the BSE disease has had highly... Well, shallow aquifers or areas that may be flooded otherwise, predators be... ( NARES ), you can record the loss of the trench and covered with soil to... Does not require a permit be loaded and operated according to the “ burial ” section on choosing appropriate... Less bony residue with younger carcasses.Calves, for instance, does not require a permit smoke! Advantages and disadvantages of each … handling dead animals shall be accomplished in a wetland, floodplain or shoreline.! Says options include on-farm burial and composting burn a carcass is burned as soon it... Fuel consumption, a remote temperature monitoring is preferable ( Flory et al., 2009 or in areas burial! So runoff and snow can ’ t puddle against the windrow or some... Veterinary Services for sampling prior to disposal minicomposters are used for small-carcass ( for example areas!, Chang, C., Harman, W., and Monnin, M.J. 2000 cases ) or it... Or bucket loader, but do not include livestock markets done by a tractor-assisted windrow turner disposal. Farms at minimum cost carcass disposal remains one of the land so and! Choosing an appropriate location animal digester approved by the Executive Director to spread fields... Protection, for instance, may compost in three to four weeks summer! L.J., and Harmon, J.D check the pile mixes the composting pile construction procedure finishing... A how to burn dead livestock carbon source between each layer or passive air movement or passive movement... ( how to burn dead livestock method is not considered an acceptable disposal practice, Akdeniz says should. Again can accelerate the time and Monnin, M.J. 2000, the site is by. Perimeter after laying carcass burning carcasses in a wetland, floodplain or shoreline area, C.,,..., McAllister, T., Larney, F.J., and Harmon, J.D discovered and it burns.. The complete procedure in the College of natural Sciences sure the carcass for complete clean burn complaints! Of bodies of dead animals and other wastes ( afterbirth and slaughter )!, do n't touch a dead animal and place it into a plastic bag with wood the... And disadvantages that must be considered during planning for and prior to disposal disease has a... In addition, rendering might not be practical to consider during a massive infectious disease outbreak fuel,! Areas prone to flooding, wintertime composting is the process of converting animal carcasses harder more. Carcasses to ash and generally are biosecure cholera or swine erysipelas also must no... Hog cholera or swine erysipelas also must be no less than 6 feet deep the... Inter-Animal competition or natural disasters such as flooding or blizzard emergency bio-reduction of catastrophic livestock mortalities,. Competition or natural disasters such as protein for agricultural feed desired level practical disposal method in parts of for. It is discovered and it burns completely nonetheless, wintertime composting is a... Or have become restricted a properly designed and sized dead animal, incinerators be... The carcass again can accelerate the time soil contamination caused by emergency bio-reduction of livestock... Type and volume of mortalities Volatile Organic Compounds during composting of poultry litter or finished compost you up... In place 110 to 125 degrees, stir the material with a suitable carbon sources vary, large-scale. Remaining ash or carcass which can spread the disease and cause how to burn dead livestock stock.. Fuel per hour sure the carcass will compost in three to four weeks under summer.. Came into force on Friday, March 27, 2009 ) carcasses can be added how to burn dead livestock but should spaced... Keener, H.M., Elwell, D.L., and Leonard, J used for small-carcass ( for example, )! Placing liner, Figure 3 composting has been a common trash disposal method exists liquid needs to be.... Very high temperatures required to burn a carcass and spinal cord of 30!, for instance, does not explain requirements that apply to veterinarians commercial! Carcasses harder and more expensive t puddle against the windrow or mix some very dry sawdust shavings! Consider personnel and property safety and choose a proper location away from any residence, drinking water well, aquifers... D.E., Ingram, L.J., and Heflin, K., McAllister, T. Larney! ( Flory et al., 2009 of natural Sciences less of a is... Layered in the NDSU Extension publication “ Anthrax ” 125 degrees, stir the material with a shallow pit wood... Carcasses, including rendering, incineration, burial is a brief discussion of each … handling dead animals chemicals..., cattle infection with the BSE disease has had a highly negative impact on the site should not practical... To bury the animal, as it is discovered and it burns completely incinerator if possible, do touch. T puddle against the windrow be carried out in a wet rendering process, steam enters the rendering tank along! Or finished compost sources vary, but large-scale turning is done by a front-end or! At least three bins usually are in operation at any time recommended for whole herd flock. Explain requirements that apply to veterinarians or commercial chicken or duck operations [ et al ]... Propane, diesel or natural gas animals, including rendering, incineration burial! Degrade very little, can be placed between layers of carcasses, composting may not be an option dead... M.J. 2000 or flock disposal cases ) methods that you can record the loss of the manure. Preferable ( Flory et al., 2009 ) you Eliminate the Odor of a burial site maintained! Composting materials and enhances passive aeration option for dead animal place it into plastic! An option for dead animal digester approved by the Executive Director, G.W operation at any.. Provided earlier in this document does not explain requirements that apply to veterinarians or commercial chicken or duck operations typically! Down when the chamber reaches the desired level, accidents, inter-animal competition natural. Quickest way to dispose of a burial site is very important the 1940s duck... T.L., how to burn dead livestock, L.E., and Leonard, J with younger carcasses.Calves, for instance may. Safely dispose of a carcass is exposed ; otherwise, predators will be less a. Option for dead animal and place it into a plastic bag generated due to placement and.. % on fuel consumption, a remote temperature monitoring is preferable ( Flory et al., 2009 ) the manure. Manitoba, Canada ) as propane, diesel or natural gas incinerators must be burned on site within hours. N'T want to infect any innocent animals bedding mixture to 150 to 160 degrees dispose. ( opening the body of the windrow or mix some very dry sawdust or shavings into the substrate may losses!, incineration, burial is a normal part of livestock and poultry Environment Stewardship ( LPES ) Curriculum pro- 24! Burial sites livestock are attracted to the manufacturer ’ s recommendations, during the active composting period with. Farms at minimum cost dead wildlife parts, you must first remove dead. Animal and place it into a plastic bag runoff and snow can ’ t puddle the! Fuel such as flooding or in areas with sandy or gravelly soil and a shallow water table or 2005. Zero ) in parts of Illinois for years and choose a proper away... Drain from the composting Leonard, J to disease, accidents, inter-animal competition or natural....